“In most cultures throughout history, [justice systems have] been dominated by compensation… Medieval systems, and all tribal systems, that don’t have centralized governments are compensatory in nature. Sometimes it’s individual compensation, sometimes it’s group compensation (you compensate the clan of which the person’s a member). But it’s very compensatory… What happens is, if the communities ended up having to pony up for your crime (because they would have to pay the other clan) then they would have an interest in policing you. And if you turned out to be a repeat offender, they kicked you out, and they made you an ‘outlaw’. The term outlaw meant outside the protection of the law. They didn’t actually kill you, and they didn’t actually punish you, but once you were made an outlaw and they withdrew their protection from you, anyone else who wanted to kill you and punish you could do so with impunity, and that was a really tough spot to be in. So, by withdrawing protection, you end up ‘punishing’ people without directly punishing them.
It was only when the monarch started intervening in this local tribal system—which the people were very reticent about giving up, they were very reluctant to give up their rights to compensation—but eventually the king superseded them, and then breaching the king’s peace turned out to be the major offense. And it’s sort of the way it is today. A crime against ‘society’ is not a crime against you. So, it turns out, if you are raped, if you are assaulted, you are not the official victim of the crime in our legal system. I represented as a prosecutor ‘The People of the State of Illinois’, and I didn’t represent you. So what happened to you is simply a crime against the polity and not against you at all. Well, I think that’s perverse. And if that perversity is expressed, then people would rebel against it.”—Randy Barnett (via eltigrechico)
“The 1994 congressional election is a revealing example of the gap between rhetoric and fact. It was called a ‘political earthquake,’ a ‘landslide victory,’ a ‘triumph of conservatism’ that reflects the continuing ‘drift to the right’ as voters gave an ‘overwhelming popular…
“Claiming there is no other life in the universe is like scooping up some water, looking at the cup and claiming there are no whales in the ocean.”—Neil deGrasse Tyson in response to “Aliens can’t exist because we haven’t found them yet” (via we-are-star-stuff)
“The Keynesian world is a world in which there are two distinct classes of actors: the skilled investor, ‘who, unperturbed by the prevailing pastime, continues to purchase investments on the best genuine long-term expectations he can frame’, and, on the other hand, the ignorant ‘game-player’. It does not seem to have occurred to Keynes that either of these two may learn from the other, and that, in particular, company directors and even the managers of investment trusts may be the wiser for learning from the market what it thinks about their actions. In this Keynesian world the managers and directors already know all about the future and have little to gain by devoting their attention to the misera plebs of the market. In fact, Keynes strongly feels that they should not! This pseudo-Platonic view of the world of high finance forms, we feel, an essential part of what Schumpeter called the ‘Keynesian vision’. This view ignores progress through exchange of knowledge because the ones know all there is to be known whilst the others never learn anything.”—Ludwig Lachmann, Capital and its Structure  (via laliberty)
There are over 526 million black women in the world, all with different appearances, and your racist ass is going to say not liking black women is a ‘preference’, when the only damn thing they all got in common physically is their blackness? Sure, honey.
“As a method of economic analysis econometrics is a childish play with figures that does not contribute anything to the elucidation of the problems of economic reality.”—Ludwig von Mises (via laliberty)
“It’s been startlingly encouraging to me the extent to which libertarianism has become normalized as an understood part of the political landscape. And one of the best ways to see that is how often it is attacked nowadays, especially by people on the progressive left… I think that the progressive left sees libertarianism as a stronger and worse enemy than the traditional conservative right. And the most self-congratulatory way of putting it would be to say that libertarians take what should be the best aspects of the left—belief in autonomy, freedom, hobbling power structures, real government power structures—and actually take them seriously. And it sort of shows the progressive left for the occasional or often impotent hypocrites that they are. And I think that awareness has really sunk in with the progressive left today, and they clearly see libertarianism as far worse an enemy to them than the right-wing ever has been.”—Brian Doherty (via eltigrechico)
its a shame that in 6 or so billion years, any and all existence on earth will be wiped out by the sun’s expansion, and it’s almost scary to think about how even now the sun continues to grow bigger and hotter, sexy and hotter let’s shut it down. pound the alarm